What Is a Stem Cell ?
Stem cells (more commonly referred to as stem cells) have characteristics can be split in a very long period of time. This cell is a cell that can be induced foundation turned into an intact cell function.
In principle, there is in all human body cells work Stem. If it is associated with a person who suffers from a degenerative disease in which the cells toward his parents (such as stroke, heart disease, etc.) to be cured as previously found that cells need to be replaced. With stem cells, cells that led to this old could become young again.
Where you can obtained stem cells ?
Stem cells are specialized cells that are not derived from all cells devoted obtained. Everything that comes from embryos have the potential to develop into specific cells or organs. Own stem cells are of two types, namely adult stem cells (found in bone marrow and become a part of our body that will regenerate damaged cells) and stem cells derived from embryos (potential body). Adults, just like embryonic stem cells. Stem cells to different types of blood cells can be obtained from bone marrow or, in small quantities, derived from the blood. Generally taken from the bone marrow from the population of mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells progenitar, with the help of certain drugs. Adult stem cells can also be extracted from skeletal muscle and fat tissue, or human umbilical cord from infants to adults. Stem cells obtained from fetuses that are considered the best because they are more likely to persist in their comparison with graft obtained from children or adults.
Produce egg cells embiro of chemically without fertilization by a sperm processes can reduce or even remove the controversial ethical and moral when use of stem cells for treatment.
What distinguishes stem cells from embryos with cells grown Stem, which Stem embryonic cells could be expected to be around the cells in our bodies. While bone marrow cells leads to blood cells.
Adult stem cells ability to propagate and differentiate into the desired lower than embryonic. Since the origin of the embryonic cells of our bodies.
Cell therapy treatment is done in two ways namely through the blood and then directly on the area to be treated. Application rather than the technology is not yet willing to do in humans because of its success can not be guaranteed to be 100%. Bone marrow transplantation is one type of stem cell transplantation, because the bone marrow contains stem cells that produce more blood cells.
Stem cell transplant for health treatment
Transplanting stem cells can be used as part of the treatment of leukemia, certain types of lymphoma (including Hodgkin’s disease), and aplastic anemia. Which can also be used to treat children with certain genetic disorders including thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and multiple congenital metabolic or immunodeficiency disorders (such as chronic granulomatous disease). Certain types of stem cells can also be used as a graft to the bone marrow destroyed by chemotherapy or high-dose radiation therapy is used to treat cancers such as breast cancer. Stem cell transplantation can be very useful for treating other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, in which stem cells could be transplanted brain cells.
Stem cells likely the cell itself (a procedure called autologous transplant) or those that are donor (a procedure called allogeneic transplant). When a person’s own stem cells are used, they are collected before chemotherapy or radiation therapy because the treatment can damage the stem cells. They are injected back into the body after treatment.
For bone marrow transplants, the donor is usually given a general anesthetic. Then a doctor move the donor marrow of the hip bone with a syringe. Transfer of bone marrow takes 1 hour.
Sometimes the stem cells from adult blood obtained from an outpatient procedure. At first, the donor is given a drug that causes the bone marrow to release more stem cells into the bloodstream. blood is then drawn through a catheter inserted into one arm and passed through a machine that removes the stem cells. Whole blood is returned to the person through a catheter inserted into the other arm. Typically, about 2 to 4 hours sessions over a period of 1 to 2 weeks are required for adequate stem cells. Stem cells can be preserved for later use by freezing them.
How stem cell transplant work ?
Doctors injected the stem cells into the recipient vessel. The injected stem cells migrate and develop in the recipient’s bones and produces blood cells.
Stem cell transplants are at risk because the recipient’s white blood cells have been destroyed or reduced in number by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. As a result, the risk of infection is very high for about 2 to 3 weeks until the donated stem cells can produce enough white blood cells to protect from infection.
Another problem is that the new bone marrow obtained from others to produce cells that attack the recipient’s cells, causing chronic graft-versus-host. Furthermore, the original disorder may recur.
The risk of infection can be reduced by keeping the recipient in isolation for a period of time (until the transplanted cells begin to produce blood cells). during this time, staff members and visitors should use a mask and a long shirt and wash their hands thoroughly before entering the space. Antibody isolated from donors may be given intravenously to the recipient to help protect against infection. Growth factors, which stimulate cell production darag, can help reduce the risk of infection and chronic graft-versus-host.
Stem cell transplant recipients usually remain in the hospital for 1 to 2 months. After discharge from the hospital, continued visit required at regular intervals. Most people need at least 1 year to heal.
However, now there are many treatments being controversial it can also be used to treat patients with cardiac abnormalities. It’s just that, in accordance with its only purpose is to repair (repair) and regeneration of damaged tissue, the total medical not be curative.
Thus, treatment with stem cell properties and not as a replacement for a damaged heart with another heart (transplant), but creating new heart muscle and blood vessels healthy new heart in the heart that have been damaged.
For now, the new stem cell therapy can also be applied in patients with coronary artery is very bad (ex deadlock total), patients who had undergone coronary bypass surgery (by-pass), or repeated percutaneous coronary intervention relapsed. Patients with a recent acute heart attack (infarction) can also undergo stem cell therapy.
Stem cell therapy method
Therapy begins with taking as much as 90-100 cc stem cells from bone marrow or skeletal muscle and the patient’s own fat tissue to avoid the problems of rejection of the stem cells to be developed.
Then, existing stem cells will be stored in a temperature -800 C for about five days until it is ready to be used for stem cell therapy and tissue regenerate damaged heart muscle.
Giving stem cells to the heart in different ways. First, the administration by infusion through a peripheral blood veins. However, this method is considered ineffective because stem cells can spread to other organs.
The second way is to inject stem cells directly into the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. This method tends to simple, safe and relatively inexpensive, and well applied to the botched patients who have had a cardiac infarction coroner percutaneous intervention and stenting of the arteries that were previously closed at the time of the attack.
Another way is to inject stem cells directly into the heart muscle by open surgery to open the chest. However, this method in addition to very risky, expensive, and not all areas of the heart that requires the injection of stem cells can be achieved.
Another alternative is the injection through a catheter inserted into the heart chambers. This method requires a special tool to aid the navigation of catheters and injecting the proper siting. This technique is widely used for the treatment of heart damage is advanced, which is generally accompanied heart failure.
Stem cell side effects
Although it tends to be minimal compared to the risks of bypass surgery, stem cell therapy has side effects to watch out for. Generally, the side effects that arise due to the emergence of infections involving the muscles and the patient’s own serum. Another effect that may arise is the cause of heart rhythm disturbances in patients.